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Table of contents

These are explored systematically in sections on the key challenges and developments in the interface of science, economic uses and law Part I ; climate change and the oceans Part II ; sustainability of fisheries Part III ; challenges and responses related to global maritime transport Part IV ; and the regulatory responses to global challenges in seas surrounding Europe Part V.

Globalization and Its Environmental Impact

Prices from excl. VAT :. View PDF Flyer. Contents About. Restricted Access. Pages: i—xxix. Challenges and Responses for the Anthropocene Epoch. By: Jan Zalasiewicz and Mark Williams. Pages: 17— Main Findings and Trends. By: John Montgomery and Lionel Carter. Pages: 37— By: Marie Jacobsson. Pages: 53— Past Trends and Challenges Ahead.

By: Harry N.


Pages: 65— By: David Freestone. Pages: 99— Pages: — By: Olav Orheim. Three Images of a Changing Arctic. By: David D. Achievements and Challenges. By: Steinar Andresen and Tora Skodvin. Future Options. By: Moritaka Hayashi. Challenges and Remedies Under the Global Economy. By: Nobuyuki Yagi.

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Prospects and Challenges in the 21st Century. By: Kristina M. Rising pollution is flowing into the oceans from land, air, and rivers, choking plant and animal life. Ocean habitats are disappearing — some with alarming rapidity — as coastal cities boom. A changing climate has brought warmer oceans, higher sea levels, and ocean acidification. Oceans are the natural capital of all countries, developed and developing; all countries suffer from degradation of these ecosystems.

Oceans | Globalization

There are close connections between land and water, human and ocean health, sustainable management and renewable benefits. Yet when we devalue our natural capital, it is often the poor who feel the greatest harm.

Oceans provide a wealth of goods and services that make a tremendous contribution to overcoming poverty, creating opportunity, and spurring economic growth. One billion people in developing countries depend upon fish and seafood for their primary source of protein. Over half a billion people in developing countries depend on fishing as a livelihood. Half are women.

For many Pacific Island countries, fish make up 80 percent of total exports. For some countries, the fishing trade is absolutely critical for their growth. In Senegal, fishing creates about , jobs and employs 17 percent of the labor force. Fishing licenses can be a critical income source. In Guinea Bissau, the annual fishing license sold to the EU at one point represented close to 50 percent of government revenues. When catches shrink, or a country is unable to keep other countries from fishing its seas, license prices fall too.

The living ocean is also home to millions of animal and plant species, important to maintaining ecosystem health — and to a large global industry in recreation and ecotourism. In the Seychelles, for example, a country consisting of islands, tourism accounts for 25 percent of GDP. More livelihoods stem from ocean research. Around the world, we estimate that about million jobs are linked to the oceans through fishing, aquaculture, coastal and marine tourism, and research.

Ocean ecosystems — mangroves, bogs, reefs, wetlands, and barrier islands — are becoming more important for protecting increasingly populous coastal areas against natural hazards.

Spice routes (7th-15th centuries)

Some million people live in coastal economies dependent on coral reefs, for example — and they are among the most vulnerable to climate change and extreme events. For hundreds of millions of people around the world, oceans are essential for providing food, jobs, livelihoods, and protection.

There is already a wealth of valuable knowledge and experience about how to restore our oceans — as well as considerable resources devoted to the challenge. Organizations such as Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy, and the World Wildlife Fund have done a tremendous job in bringing the problems facing oceans to public attention, while also showing the way to innovative solutions with marine protected areas and projects within countries to deal with pollution or rebuilding fish stocks. The UN group has worked for many years on oceans management — with agencies such as the FAO playing a crucial role in measuring the health of fish stocks, for example.

Causes and Effects of Climate Change - National Geographic

Many private companies are increasingly committed to establishing sustainable supplies of seafood. To make our oceans healthy and productive again, we need greater cooperative and integrated action around the globe, so that our efforts add up to more than the sum of their parts.

This Partnership will bring together countries, scientific centers, NGOs, international organizations, foundations, and the private sector to pool knowledge, experience, expertise, and investment around a set of agreed upon goals. These goals can sharpen our focus, encourage common and reinforcing efforts, and compel us to measure performance. Together, we will build on the excellent work already being done to address the threats to oceans, identify workable solutions, and scale them. We can also mobilize financing where there are gaps. Our relationships with both client governments and all shareholder supporters — based on common interests in development, growth, and sharing experiences in solving problems — offers us a valuable entry point.

We can coordinate financing and help with the global advocacy effort, using our own access to policymakers and ministers of finance, in particular, to highlight the oceans agenda, raise interest in investment, and communicate results. We will also provide new funding, as well as leverage our existing portfolios in fisheries, coastal zone management, marine protected areas, ports, urban development, agriculture, and community development, backed by our knowledge platform.

We are asking as many organizations as possible to join this initiative. And I am delighted to announce that the response has been extremely positive. The World Bank already has a firm track record working on this topic with the Small Island Developing States, which face unique development issues, as well as large coastal countries such as Indonesia and India.

Some of these countries have deep experience in protecting oceans. President Tong of Kiribati, for example, has been a leader in sustainable management of coral reefs and associated ecosystems. Brazil is doing innovative work with the private sector and civil society in scaling up marine protected areas. I expect these leaders and others to play key roles in the Partnership.

We hope that this is only the beginning of the list of organizations and companies that will join this partnership — and will join in showing effectiveness to achieve results. These are funds that would be used for technical assistance to support key governance reforms that can create the necessary incentives for long-term investment in oceans, as well as to help operate marine protected areas, and monitor and communicate lessons learned.

Last September, the World Bank convened a roundtable to share ideas and come up with solutions for how to bring oceans back to health. First, countries need help making better decisions about oceans.

Globalization Plays a Bit Part in Environmental Issues

Simply put, we cannot manage what we cannot measure. The Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services initiative, or WAVES, is already helping developing countries to integrate the economic benefits that ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and coral reefs provide into national accounting systems. We need to extend these tools to all ocean ecosystems. To make better decisions, countries also need to reform policies. Better policies and governance can create incentives — for both the public and private sectors — to reduce threats to ocean ecosystems, and to invest in long-term protection and management of critical coastal and ocean habitats.

Taxes and subsidies, for example, need to be directed with an eye toward incentives and disincentives; certification processes can be simplified; regulatory institutions and national systems for enforcing rights-based fishing can be strengthened. Second, there are numerous areas where greater investment can make a real difference.

When a coastline is managed, better decisions are made about development. When marine areas are protected, critical ecosystem services can recover and thrive, enhancing the ocean in neighboring spaces as well.